Abstracts Track 2022

Area 1 - Information Technologies Supporting Learning

Nr: 2

Peer Performance Reviews: Developing Teamwork Skills in Online Courses


Maureen Andrade

Abstract: Employers of recent university graduates identify teamwork as a critical component of career success along with skills such as communication, ethical reasoning, critical thinking, problem-solving, and the application of knowledge to real-life (AAC&U, 2011; Hart Research Associates, 2015, 2018). These skills are relevant across disciplines and professions and prepare individuals to face a “world of unscripted problems”, characterized by complexity and change (AAC&U, 2015, p. 1). Supported by technology, teamwork can build community among students to address the social isolation sometimes experienced in online courses (Croft et al., 2010; Hammond et al., 2020; Phirangee & Malec, 2017). It helps students develop skills associated with high performing teams, such as individual and collective accountability, open communication, defined roles and norms, shared vision, and clear goals (Katzenbach & Smith, 2015; Schoultz, 2017; Wiese & Ricci, 2011). As students collaborate virtually on team assignments, they learn to understand and appreciate how diversity perspectives, skills, and abilities contribute to improved performance and achievement (Kuh, 2008). Benefits of teamwork include deeper learning, increased comprehension, and improved knowledge retention (Biggs & Tang, 2011; Hall et al., 2004; Ohl & Cates, 2006; Scott-Ladd & Chan, 2008; Volkov & Volkov, 2015; Wageman & Gordon, 2005). Teamwork increases motivation and enhances skill development (Volkov & Volkov, 2015), lessens anxiety and workload, and results in a better final product (Schultz et al., 2010). However, students may prefer to work alone as a result of negative experiences with teamwork, including logistical problems, personality differences, communication issues, or perceived inequities in workload and grading (Pfaff & Huddleson, 2003; Schultz et al., 2010). These issues may result from insufficient structure, training, or formative feedback. Team assignments must be intentionally designed to help students achieved desired outcomes. This study examined the influence of peer performance reviews on teamwork skill development. Students provided rubric-based peer feedback on various aspects of teamwork on five course assignments. The reviews were designed to increase individual accountability, improve performance, and develop teamwork skills. The research question was: Do peer reviews help students improve their performance on subsequent assignments? The performance reviews were set up as an assignment in the course learning management system. Students received the average of the scores for the peer review assignment. Data was analyzed to determine score improvements, score range, level of participation, and comment types. Findings demonstrated that performance ratings did not improve during the semester nor did participation in the review process but rather scores fluctuated. As such, timely, on-going peer review did not appear to influence subsequent performance. As students were not graded on the submission of the peer review assignment, participation declined in the middle of the semester compared to the beginning and end. Also, students tended to give very high or very low scores. Implications suggest that refinements to the assignment are needed to encourage more effective feedback.

Nr: 6

The Design of Accessible Online Learning: Lessons Learned in the Pandemic


Sheryl Burgstahler

Abstract: Many instructors of online courses unintentionally erect barriers to students with some types of disabilities. The good news is that there are established principles and evidence-based practices that can be applied to make courses accessible to and inclusive of all students. Taking steps toward inclusive design is of special importance because of the rapid increase in online learning opportunities in response to the pandemic. Universal design (UD) has emerged as a framework for creating accessible and inclusive courses. UD is defined by the Center for Universal Design as “the design of products and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design.” UD principles, originally applied to the design of architecture and commercial products, have also been applied to the design of online instruction. Further, Universal Design for Learning (UDL, Center for Universal Design, n.d.) encourages instructors to offer students multiple means of engagement, representation, action and expression. In addition, following Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG), published by the World Wide Web Consortium, ensures that IT can be effectively used by people with disabilities. Applying the combination of UD, UDL, and WCAG principles is particularly suitable for ensuring that online learning offerings are accessible and inclusive and minimize the need for additional accommodations for students with disabilities. Evidence-based practices that apply these principles include the following: • Use clear, consistent layouts and organization schemes for presenting content. • Use descriptive wording for hyperlink text (e.g., “DO-IT Knowledge Base” rather than “click here”). • Avoid creating PDF documents. Post instructor-created course content within LMS content pages (i.e., in HTML) and, if a PDF is desired, link to it only as a secondary source of information. • Structure headings and lists (e.g.,using style features built into the Learning Management System (LMS), Microsoft Word, etc. • Provide concise text descriptions of content presented within images. • Use large fonts on uncluttered pages with plain backgrounds. • Use color combinations that are high contrast and can be read by those who are colorblind. • Caption videos. • Provide multiple ways for students to learn, demonstrate what they have learned, and engage. • Address a wide range of language skills as you write content (e.g., spell acronyms, define terms, avoid or define jargon). • Make instructions and expectations clear. • Provide feedback on project parts and offer corrective opportunities. (Burgstahler, 2021) References Burgstahler, S. (2021). 20 Tips for Teaching an Accessible Online Course. Seattle: University of Washington. Retrieved from uw.edu/doit/20-tips-teaching-accessible-online-course Center for Universal Design. (n.d.). History of universal design. Retrieved from https://projects.ncsu.edu/design/cud/about_ud/udhistory.htm UDL on Campus. (n.d.). CAST. Retrieved from udloncampus.cast.org/home

Area 2 - Learning/Teaching Methodologies and Assessment

Nr: 22

Game-based Learning: Food and Nutrition Education Tool for Adolescents during Remote Teaching


Ivia P. Sampaio, Luiz Gustavo S. Vieira, Óliver S. Becker, Claudio M. Toledo and Betzabeth S. Villar

Abstract: Remote teaching, adopted in many educational institutions due to COVID-19 pandemic in the last two years, required the use of several active methodologies to ensure the success of the teaching-learning process. As an example, game-based learning is a promising educational experience for developing autonomy among adolescents who are common users of digital technologies in their daily lives. We apply game-based learning considering the class topic "Quality of life of human populations" from the Biology discipline, within the area of knowledge of Natural Sciences and their technologies, based on the course plan of the high school at state technical school. The approach on adequate and healthy nutrition was chosen, following the food guide's recommendations for the Brazilian population, according to the increase in the prevalence of overweight and the consumption of ultra-processed foods among Brazilian adolescents, as described by recent national food surveys. The objective was to develop a digital tool to promote food and educational education among Brazilian adolescents of both sexes, between 14 and 19 years old. First, the educational game was developed with scenarios, characters, challenges, interaction and gameplay, attractive to the target audience, using a logic programming mechanism. The objective of the game was to present the concept of adequate and healthy food through the use of playful and dynamic resources. The game prototype was created in its preliminary version, compatible with Android and iOS devices. Later, it may undergo some adaptations during its application in a pilot study and the evolution of its implementation. The game developed as a digital educational tool can provide a differentiated and motivating experience in the food and nutrition education process. This way can help adolescents improve their food knowledge and select foods more consciously. In this sense, the player assumes the role of protagonist in the teaching-learning process, presenting greater autonomy in the possible changes of their eating behavior. Among the different types of didactic procedures to be used in high school classes, the use of information and communication technology through games is a proposal for an innovative and effective activity, which can be applied both in remote, in-person and distance education. Therefore, it is versatile to different teaching modalities and can reach students' particularities.

Nr: 30

Links between Socioeconomic Level and Computational Thinking Development at School: Early Results from the PREP Experiment (2018-2021)


Timothée Guilhermet

Abstract: Computational thinking is considered as part of the 21st century skills. Therefore, its development during schooling has become an important challenge. Many studies focus on the links between computational thinking development and personal and cognitive factors. Although the influence of socioeconomic background is a central research axis in educational sociology, few studies focus on its potential links with computational thinking. Our research to fill that gap using longitudinal data from the PREP project (from french Programmation du Robot à l’Ecole primaire or Primary School Robot Programming). This experiment focus on schools’ socioeconomic level and measures the scores from a computational thinking test from age 6 to 8 for the same population who have been assigned to engage in robotics activities for three years. By studying the changes (deltas) in computational thinking skills using the Computational Thinking test (CT-t), we found significant differences in favor of students from privileged background in comparison with those from underprivileged background. These differences point in the direction of an earlier entry into learning for students from privileged background. Thus, computational thinking could be integrated into what we call the school cultural capital, along with more traditional school subjects such as mathematics and language. In this regard, the development of computational thinking does not differ in nature from language learning or mathematics, which is why we believe it is necessary to carry on additional research on students’ digital cultural practices that can explain our early observations. We would then be able to conclude about computational thinking as a school subject, which can be integrated into the standard definition of cultural capital. In addition, we believe that these results question the relevance of the concept of digital native. Indeed, if a divide in access and use of digital tools may still exist, it seems necessary to integrate the socioeconomic factor to study digital tools access and use of the young populations.

Area 3 - Social Context and Learning Environments

Nr: 25

Considerations for Program Planning of Pre-service Mathematics Teachers


Stephanie A. Sadownik

Abstract: This abstract considers the potentially missing components in the current undergraduate education programs at the post-secondary levels for pre-service mathematics teachers. It identifies the development of horizon content knowledge intersected with social constructivist theories of education as a pivotal consideration for future program planning and acknowledges a disconnect for elementary generalists who are tasked with lesson planning in non subject specialist areas such as mathematics. While Darling-Hammond (2000) and Monk (1994) note there does not appear to be a commensurate relationship for improvement in teaching or student achievement through taking additional higher level mathematics courses (i.e. number theory, abstract algebra, real analysis)(Wasserman, 2016). Wasserman (2016) suggests a commensurate relationship does exist between improvements in teaching and horizon content knowledge, which asks teachers to connect current student learning to future mathematics. “Horizon content knowledge (HCK) is related to an awareness of the broader mathematical territory surrounding current instruction, including major disciplinary ideas and structures” (Ball, 2009 as cited by Wasserman, 2016, p. 30). For elementary generalists a social constructivist approach to group or collaborative lesson planning and subsequent knowledge building (Scardamelia, 2002; Slotta & Najafi, 2013) may present a viable alternative.

Nr: 28

Affective Factors on the Feedback Process of L2 Writing


Hye A. Ryoo

Abstract: This study investigated the affective factors acting on the feedback process of L2 writing and their interactions. Fifty-three students who enrolled in KFL (Korean as a foreign language) class of a Singapore university in 2021 participated in this study. Students were tasked with four theme-based writing assignments and exchanged their feedback with peers and their tutor online. They then responded to a questionnaire assessing their positive and negative affective factors associated with the feedback process. The qualitative analysis of the survey responses could identify the benefits of both peer feedback and those of teacher’s feedback through students' positive perceptions. At the same time, some negative issues of anxiety and concerns related to reliability of peer feedback were also revealed. Following a further qualitative analysis of a follow-up interview procedure, the study suggested a streamlined feedback design in the process of L2 writing in a way to contribute to the students' mutual learning and to ensure students' positive receptions to their peer / teacher' s feedback.

Area 4 - Ubiquitous Learning

Nr: 29

"Can You Hear Me?” The Learning Experience on “Zoom” of Students with Deaf or Hard of Hearing Impairments


Hayley Weigelt

Abstract: Over the years and up to the arousal of the COVID-19 pandemic, deaf or hard of hearing students studying in higher education institutions, participated lectures on campus using hearing aids and strategies adapted to frontal learning in a classroom. Usually, these aids were well known to them from their earlier study experience in school. However, the transition to online lessons, due to the latest pandemic, led deaf or hard of hearing students to study outside of their physical, well known learning environment. The change of learning environment and structure rose new challenges for these students. The present study examined the learning experience, limitations, challenges and benefits regarding learning online with lecture and classmates via the “Zoom” video conference program, among deaf or hard of hearing students in academia setting. In addition, emotional and social aspects related to learning in general versus the “Zoom” were examined. The study included 18 students diagnosed as deaf or hard of hearing, studying in various higher education institutions in Israel. Mean age=28. All students had experienced lessons on the “Zoom” for at least one full semester. Following allocation of the group study by the deaf and hard of hearing non-profit organization “Ma’agalei Shema”, and receiving the participants inform of consent, students were requested to answer a google form questioner and participate in an interview. The questioner included background information (e.g., age, year of studying, faculty etc.), level of computer literacy, and level of hearing and forms of communication (e.g., lip reading, sign language etc.). The interviews included a one on one, semi-structured, in-depth interview, conducted by the main researcher of the study (interview duration: up to 60 minutes). The interviews were held on “ZOOM” using specific adaptations for each interviewee: clear face screen of the interviewer for lip and face reading, and/ or professional sign language or live text transcript of the conversation. Additionally, interviewees used their audio devices if needed. Questions regarded: learning experience, difficulties and advantages studying using “Zoom”, learning in a classroom versus on “Zoom”, and questions concerning emotional and social aspects related to learning. Thematic analysis of the interviews revealed severe difficulties regarding the ability of deaf or hard of hearing students to comprehend during lessons on the “Zoom” without adoptive aids. For example, interviewees indicated difficulties understanding “Zoom” lessons due to their inability to use hearing devices commonly used by them in the classroom (such as FM systems). 80% indicated they could not comprehend “Zoom” lessons since they could not see the lectures face, either because lectures did not agree to open their cameras or, either because lectures did not keep a straight forward clear face appearance while opening their cameras. However, not all descriptions regarded learning via the “zoom” were negative. For example, 20% reported the recording of “Zoom” lessons as a main advantage. Enabling then to repeatedly watch the lessons, at their own pace, mostly assisted by friends and family to translate the audio output into an accessible input. These finding and others, as well as their recommendation to enable deaf or hard of hearing students to study inclusively online, will be presented at the conference.